What is Electric Vehicle
Vehicles that run on electricity are called Electric Vehicles (EVs). Electric Vehicle Electric vehicle is known as EV. There is no combustion engine in this type of electric vehicles, which run on petrol and diesel. Electric Vehicle: The source of power in electric cars is the battery. The battery is charged as is the fuel. Electricity is stored in the battery. This electric power of the battery is converted into mechanical power.
In electric vehicles, the battery produces DC power. 3 phase AC induction motor is used in vehicles. The DC supply of the battery is converted into AC by the inverter. In this, a 3 phase induction motor runs the AC supply. Along with the motor, a gear box is also installed. Electric Vehicle: In an electric vehicle, the electric motor rotates the mechanical gear box. In this, electric power is converted into mechanical power.
History Of Electric Vehicles
Electricity has made its place as an important fuel for human life. Benjamin Franklin gave a great gift to the world with the invention of electricity. Even today, increasing technology in many areas is not possible without electric power.
After the invention of electricity, it was done by Scottish scientist Robert Anderson in 1832. After this, the craze for electric vehicles started increasing in the late 18th century and beginning of the 19th century. At the end of the 18th century, electric trains were made, the speed of which was 100 km/hour. Which also includes Kamil Zenanji’s James content vehicles.
Electric vehicles became quite famous in the beginning of the 19th century. Manufacturers of electric vehicles had also shown more interest in this. The period from 1900 to 1920 was a time of competition for electric vehicles. On one side there were vehicles running on fuel (oil, gas etc.) and on the other side there were vehicles running on electricity.
There was no noise in electric vehicles and no pollution, but the price of electric cars was very high compared to fuel-powered vehicles. Even electricity supply was not available. There was also a danger of electrocution. Fuel was easily available for petrol and diesel vehicles. Petrol and diesel vehicles also saved time, hence people started getting more interested in petrol and diesel vehicles.
The best-selling electric vehicles of 1912 began to phase out after 1925. And today once again the world is moving towards electric vehicles. In today’s time, the world has no better solution than electricity as a fuel. Today every country in the world is moving towards Electric Vehicle (EV).
How Does An Electric Vehicle Work?
We all have experienced vehicles running on petrol and diesel. Gone was the era when electric vehicles were driven. But due to the compulsion of earth’s pollution, this era of EV is coming back. If someone has not seen vehicles running on electricity, then it is natural for him to have a question in his mind that how does an electric vehicle (EV) work?
Friends, Electric Vehicle (EV) runs on charging from electricity. In these, electricity is used to run electric car, electric scooter, electric bike and any electric vehicle (EV).
We all must have seen many machines running on electricity in our homes. Especially the machines in industries have always been seen running on electricity. If we talk about our homes, the ceiling fan that runs around us, or the flour mill that runs on an electric motor, etc. Electric Vehicle (EV) runs on electricity. Converts one electrical power into mechanical energy.
Working Principle Of Electric Vehicle
The working method of Electric Vehicle EV is much simpler than other vehicles. Here electric energy is converted into mechanical energy. Electricity is used as fuel in electric vehicles. Lithium iron batteries are used for electricity. Similar batteries are also used in our mobiles.
This battery supplies us DC current. An inverter is used to convert this DC current supply into AC current. The work of this inverter is similar to that of the inverter in our homes. Electric Vehicle Electric Vehicle EV runs on the capacity of battery. How many kilometers an electric vehicle EV will run depends on the battery capacity. The battery installed in it is rechargeable. After this battery is discharged, it is charged and reused.
The supply of AC current coming out of the inverter is given to the 3 phase motor and the motor rotates. Electric Vehicle: In Electric Vehicle EV, motor is used in place of engine and battery (electricity) is used in place of diesel or petrol.
Main parts of electric vehicle
The structure of the vehicles is very strong. If we talk about petrol and diesel vehicles, it is very easy to know these vehicles. To understand these vehicles, it is necessary to understand their main parts. Here below are the main parts of Electric Vehicle EV.
Battery – Battery is like a heart in electric vehicles EV. The entire load of electric vehicles EV remains on the battery only. In a way, batteries are the fuel of electric cars. The battery installed in it is rechargeable. After this battery is discharged, it is charged and reused. Lead acid and lithium iron are used in these batteries. Most batteries are made of lithium iron. Its capacity is more and better and its life is also good.
The main function of the battery is to provide power to the electric motor. Also, electric supply has to be completed for signals, side lights and other functions of the vehicles. The battery becomes overheated during charging and discharging. Gasoline is used to remove this heat from batteries.
Electric Motor – 3 phase motor is used in electric vehicles. We all must have seen a normal motor. Which is run on electricity. The motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
Here the 3 phase motor is run on AC supply. The speed of this motor is up to about 18000 RPM. This motor provides motion to electric vehicles. The greater the capacity of the motor, the greater the torque of the vehicle. But it also consumes more electricity.
Inverter – Use of inverter is very important in electric vehicles EV. The work of this inverter is similar to that of the inverter in our homes. The electricity received from the battery is DC current. And if we have to run an AC current 3 phase motor, then the DC current supply has to be converted into AC current.
The main function of the inverter is to convert DC current into AC current. Input of batteries is given in the inverter. And the output is used in motor vehicles and other places. The inverter also controls the intensity of the supply. Due to which the speed of the motor can increase or decrease.
Charging Point – Every EV, electric scooter or car, every electric vehicle EV has a charging point. The batteries of the vehicles are charged from this charging point. The charging point is connected to a plug with an external power supply through which the batteries are charged. Keeping batteries charged is an important process. That is why charging points have to be used almost daily.
Battery Management System
The part that solves the biggest problem of electric vehicle EV is Battery Management System (BMS). Many battery cells are used in electric vehicles EV. The process of their charging and discharging continues. It is important for the voltage and current to remain stable during the process of charging and discharging battery cells.
All the cells of the battery need to be charged and discharged simultaneously. The uneven charging process of the battery causes the battery to deteriorate very quickly. Battery Management System (BMS) manages all these processes. Controls the processes of charging and discharging. Initially this was a big problem which was solved by Battery Management System (BMS).
Power Control Unit
The most important function in an electric vehicle is that of the power control unit. (PCU) works as the mind of an electric vehicle, and also works to control the electric vehicle. The complete responsibility for the control of the electric vehicle rests with the (PCU). We get all the parameters like speed, battery, safety and RPM of Electric Vehicle from (PCU). The process of charging and discharging the battery is also known to us through (PCU). We can only know from the PCU how much output the motor gets. We also get the safety signals of electric vehicles from (PCU).
Regenerative Braking Unit
Regenerative Breaking Unit Regenerative Breaking Unit is used to stop the electric vehicle. A specialty of this Regenerative Breaking Unit system is that, when we apply brakes, electricity is generated, and this electricity also charges the battery.
When brakes are applied in an electric vehicle, the electric supply is cut off. But mechanical energy is obtained due to kinetic energy. That is why the motor also starts working like a generator.
Benefits Of Electric Vehicle
- The biggest advantage of electric vehicle is that it reduces pollution. Today the world is struggling with the problem of global warming. Gradually the amount of pollution is increasing so much that human life will become difficult in the future.
- Electric vehicles play a big role in reducing pollution.
- Transport expenses are very low. This cost is much less in EV as compared to petrol and diesel. The prices of petrol and diesel are higher and electricity is cheaper.
- While today the transportation cost of a petrol vehicle ranges from 5 to 15 rupees, the transportation cost of electric vehicles is less than 1 rupee.
- There is very little maintenance cost in electric vehicles, there is no engine in it, it can be said that almost zero maintenance is required.
- There is no power wastage in electric vehicle EV, energy wastage is very less as compared to engine.
- In electric motor, the acceleration time is very less, which means the starting torque is high.
Disadvantages Of Electric Vehicle
- The biggest disadvantage of electric vehicle is its mileage. Its mileage capacity is less after a single charging. Therefore, it is not advisable to take it on long journeys. Today every electric vehicle manufacturing company is working on this topic.
- It takes more time to charge the battery. And today no one has time. In such a situation, it is not right to wait for hours for charging. But the good thing is that due to fast charging this time has become 1 hour instead of 6 hours.
- Battery cost is the highest in electric cars. Generally the life of the battery is 3 years to 5 years. The high cost of battery replacement poses a huge burden. In this too, the R. & D. team of every company is engaged in increasing the life of the battery.
- The price of electric vehicle is very high. Owning a car is everyone’s dream.
- Compared to petrol and diesel vehicles, the price of electric vehicle is very high. The price can be almost double that of a petrol car. In this, the government is also trying to reduce the gap by giving subsidy.
- Charging infrastructure is not developed in our country, charging stations are not yet built everywhere. Every state government has made a start but it is necessary to work on it fast.
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